People from ethnic minorities are at a higher risk of dying from coronavirus, a report by Public Health England says.
It shows age remains the biggest risk factor, while being male is another.
But if you strip out age and sex, the report says people of Bangladeshi ethnicity have twice the risk of death than people of white British ethnicity.
The impact of Covid-19 is also "disproportionate" for other Asian, Caribbean and black ethnicities. But it remains unclear why.
The analysis on ethnicity and risk did not consider a person's occupation or obesity, even though both are known risk factors for getting seriously ill with coronavirus.
It acknowledges that more work is needed to understand and advise people about the risk.
Health Secretary Matt Hancock said the public was "understandably angry about injustices" and that he felt a "deep responsibility because this pandemic has exposed huge disparities in the health of our nation", with ethnic background being a "major risk factor" for coronavirus.
He told the House of Commons: "It is very clear that some people are significantly more vulnerable to Covid-19 and this is something I'm determined to understand in full and take action to address."
"Black lives matter, as do those of the poorest areas of our country" and health outcomes need to be "levelled up," he added.
On Monday night, the Department of Health and Social Care denied reports the delay was down to official concerns of potential civil unrest linked to global anger over the death of African-American George Floyd.
What's in the review?
The rapid review was launched when it became clear that some people were getting more sick with coronavirus than others.
Public Health England reviewed thousands of existing health records and other coronavirus data.
The report looks at disparities by:
- age and sex
- pre-existing health problems or comorbidities
It is not possible to combine all of these factors together to judge an individual's risk because of the way the source data is recorded.
The data does, however, reveal clear inequalities.
What has it found?
The report says people aged 80 or older are 70 times more likely to die than those under 40.
Working-age men diagnosed with Covid-19 are twice as likely to die as women.
The risk of dying with coronavirus is higher among those living in more deprived parts of the UK.
The report says certain occupations – security guards, taxi or bus drivers and construction workers and social care staff – are at higher risk.
For ethnicity, coronavirus death rates were highest among people of Black and Asian ethnic groups when compared to white British ethnicity.
People of Chinese, Indian, Pakistani, other Asian, Caribbean and other Black ethnicity had between a 10% and 50% higher risk of death when compared to white British.
Analysis: Report has important flaw
The government had been under pressure to publish the findings of this inquiry. It was due to be released by the end of May.
Now it's here, it's not clear why there was a delay. The main findings reinforce what we already know – that belonging to an ethnic minority group is a major risk factor.
It doesn't move us forward in answering why, though.
The report acknowledges an important flaw in the analysis – it couldn't factor in important risks, such as a person's job and underlying health conditions, that increase the chance of dying with coronavirus. Where you live and how much you earn are important considerations too.
Death rates for people living in the most deprived areas of England were more than double the least deprived areas.
The report says coronavirus has replicated and in some cases increased existing health inequalities.
It doesn't mention how to address those to save more lives.
Calls for 'urgent action'
Labour MP for Battersea Marsha de Cordova said the report was "notably silent" on how risks amplified by "racial and health inequalities" could be reduced.
She said the government "mRead More – Source